Gorgona was a proto-conceptual group from Zagreb that unrealised itself between 1959 and 1966. It consisted of the painters Josip Vaništa (1924), Julije Knifer (1924-2004), Marijan Jevšovar (1922-1998) and Đuro Seder (1927); the sculptor Ivan Kožarić (1921); architect Miljenko Horvat (1935-2012), who also worked as a painter and photographer; and the art historians and critics Radoslav Putar (1929–1994), Matko Meštrović (1933) and Dimitrije Bašičević Mangelos (1921-1987). Gorgona did not have a platform or manifesto, and was not an artistic group in the usual sense. It was based on the idea of spiritual kinship in a much broader sense than could be implied by a defined aesthetic or stylistic platform. Each of the artists of Gorgona maintained, developed and enjoyed complete creative autonomy.

The members occasionally met, talked, corresponded, sent one another „homework" and „questionnaires", went on "inspection tours of the seasons”, organised exhibitions in a glazier’s shop they called "Studio G”, published the anti-magazine Gorgona, performed group- and auto-choreographed movements, set up, posed and photographed. All these activities were permeated with humour, wit and paradox, modelled by taking over the terminology and the form of the society they had isolated themselves from.

Initially, the group name had come from one of Mangelos’ poems, not the Tuscan Archipelago island, but they later discovered this link and incorporated it into their work. Gorgona established contacts with numerous international artists, who like the group, sought expression through reduced means: Lucio Fontana, Robert Rauschenberg, Piero Manzoni, Piero Dorazio, François Morellet and Enzo Mari or Yves Klein.